References
OUR APPROACH
  1. Zanos, P., Moaddel, R., Morris, P. et al. NMDAR inhibition-independent antidepressant actions of ketamine metabolites. Nature 533, 481–486 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature17998
DEPRESSION AND DMT
  1.  https://www.who.int/teams/mental-health-and-substance-use/mental-  health-in-the-workplace
  2. https://www.workplacementalhealth.org/mental-health-topics/depression/quantifying-the-cost-of-depression
  3. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db377.htm
  4. STAR*DTrial: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/funding/clinical research/practical/stard/allmedicationlevels.shtml
  5. Trivedi MH., Rush AJ., Wisniewski SR., et al. Evaluation of outcomes with citalopram for depression using measurement-based care in STAR*D:  implications for clinical practice. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163:28–40.
  6. Sim K, Lau WK, Sim J, Sum MY, Baldessarini RJ. Prevention of Relapse and Recurrence in Adults with Major Depressive Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Controlled Trials. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015 Jul 7;19(2):pyv076. doi: 10.1093/ijnp/pyv076. Erratum in: Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2016 Apr 27;: PMID: 26152228; PMCID: PMC4772815.
  7. Bull SA, Hunkeler EM, Lee JY, Rowland CR, Williamson TE, Schwab JR, Hurt SW. Discontinuing or switching selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors. Ann Pharmacother. 2002 Apr;36(4):578-84. doi:10.1345/aph.1A254. PMID: 11918502.
  8. C​​arbonaro, T. M., & Gatch, M. B. (2016). Neuropharmacology of N,N-dimethyltryptamine. Brain Research Bulletin, 126, 74–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2016.04.01 
  9. Feilding Amanda, Tagliazucchi Enzo, Chialvo Dante, Nutt David, “The entropic brain: a theory of conscious states informed by neuroimaging research with psychedelic drugs”, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , 2014. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00020 
  10. Hamilton JP, Farmer M, Fogelman P, Gotlib IH. Depressive Rumination, the  Default-Mode Network, and the Dark Matter of Clinical Neuroscience. Biol  Psychiatry. 2015;78(4):224-230. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.02.020
  11. Ly, C., Greb, A. C., Cameron, L. P., Wong, J. M., Barragan, E. V., Wilson, P. C., Burbach, K. F., Soltanzadeh Zarandi, S., Sood, A., Paddy, M. R., Duim, W. C., Dennis, M. Y., McAllister, A. K., Ori-McKenney, K. M., Gray, J. A., & Olson, D. E. (2018). Psychedelics Promote Structural and Functional Neural Plasticity. Cell Reports, 23(11), 3170–3182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2018.05.022
  12. Timmermann, C., Roseman, L., Schartner, M., Milliere, R., Williams, L. T.  J., Erritzoe, D., Muthukumaraswamy, S., Ashton, M., Bendrioua, A., Kaur,  O., Turton, S., Nour, M. M., Day, C. M., Leech, R., Nutt, D. J., & Carhart-  Harris, R. L. (2019). Neural correlates of the DMT experience assessed with  multivariate EEG. Scientific Reports, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-  019-51974-4
  13. Based on comparison to current antidepressant therapies available 
  14. Based on current data on efficacy of psilocybin to treat TRD (see Carhart-Harris, R.L., Roseman, L., Bolstridge, M. et al. Psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression: fMRI-measured brain mechanisms. Sci Rep 7, 13187 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-13282-7) and mechanistic data to suggest similar mechanism of action of DMT to psilocybin 
  15. Morales-Garcia, J.A., Calleja-Conde, J., Lopez-Moreno, J.A. et al. N,N-dimethyltryptamine compound found in the hallucinogenic tea ayahuasca, regulates adult neurogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Transl Psychiatry 10, 331 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-01011-0
  16. https://psychedelicreview.com/person/richard-manske/
  17. Szara S. 1956. Dimethyltryptamine: its metabolism in man; the relation to its psychotic effect to the serotonin metabolism. Experientia 12: 441-2
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  20. Strassman RJ, Qualls CR. 1994. Dose-response study of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in humans. I. Neuroendocrine, autonomic, and cardiovascular effects. Arch Gen Psychiatry 51: 85-97
  21. Strassman RJ, Qualls CR, Uhlenhuth EH, Kellner R. 1994. Dose-response study of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in humans. II. Subjective effects and preliminary results of a new rating scale. Arch Gen Psychiatry 51: 98-108
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  23. Strassman RJ, Qualls CR, Berg LM. 1996. Differential tolerance to biological and subjective effects of four closely spaced doses of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in humans. Biol Psychiatry 39: 784-95
  24. Gouzoulis-Mayfrank E, Heekeren K, Neukirch A, Stoll M, Stock C, et al. 2005. Psychological effects of (S)-ketamine and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT): a double-blind, cross-over study in healthy volunteers. Pharmacopsychiatry 38: 301-11
  25. Daumann J, Heekeren K, Neukirch A, Thiel CM, Moller-Hartmann W, Gouzoulis-Mayfrank E. 2008. Pharmacological modulation of the neural basis underlying inhibition of return (IOR) in the human 5-HT2A agonist and NMDA antagonist model of psychosis. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 200: 573-83
  26. Timmermann C, Roseman L, Schartner M, Milliere R, Williams LTJ, et al. 2019. Neural correlates of the DMT experience assessed with multivariate EEG. Sci Rep 9: 16324
  27. Timmermann C, Roseman L, Williams L, Erritzoe D, Martial C, et al. 2018. DMT Models the Near-Death Experience. Front Psychol 9: 1424
  28. Small Pharma Ltd. (2020, December 17). SPL026 (DMT Fumarate) in Healthy Subjects and MDD Patients. ClinicalTrials.gov. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04673383
About Small Pharma

We’re a mental health drug development company that’s accelerating the development of fast acting antidepressant treatments using DMT based therapies. We’re dedicated to making a difference.

With a focus on innovative approaches and committed to challenging the status quo, we’re targeting the root causes of depression and hoping to unlock the minds of millions.

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